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Expression of the nirS, hzsA, and hdh genes and antibiotic resistance genes in response to recovery of anammox process inhibited by oxytetracycline
- Zhang, Qian-Qian, Zhao, Yi-Heng, Wang, Cheng-Jie, Bai, Yu-Hui, Wu, Dan, Wu, Jing, Tian, Guang-Ming, Shi, Man-Ling, Mahmood, Qaisar, Jin, Ren-Cun
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.681 pp. 56-65
- anaerobic ammonium oxidation, antibiotic resistance genes, bioaugmentation, heme, hulls, oxytetracycline, polymers, protein content, ribosomal RNA, sludge
- The inhibitory effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) performance were relieved by employing bio-augmentation (BA) tactics. However, the recovery mechanism was vague. The response of specific anammox activity (SAA), heme c, functional genes, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) to OTC inhibition and BA aid were traced in the present study. The results indicated that response of SAA, heme c content and functional genes, such as nirS, hzsA and hdh to OTC inhibition were not synchronous. The presence of the tetC, tetG, tetX, and intI1 genes enhanced the resistance of anammox sludge to OTC, thus accelerating the performance recovery when aided by BA. A significant correlation existed between number of anammox 16S rRNA gene copies and protein level in the soluble microbial products (SMP), between tetG gene relative abundance and polysaccharose in SMP and between tetG gene relative abundance and protein in bound EPS (EPSs). In nutshell, the current findings provide the first description of a recovery mechanism regarding OTC-inhibited anammox performance aided by BA based on functional genes and highlights the contribution of ARGs and the self-resistance ability of EPS.