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Multi-modal deep learning for Fuji apple detection using RGB-D cameras and their radiometric capabilities

Author:
Gené-Mola, Jordi, Vilaplana, Verónica, Rosell-Polo, Joan R., Morros, Josep-Ramon, Ruiz-Hidalgo, Javier, Gregorio, Eduard
Source:
Computers and electronics in agriculture 2019 v.162 pp. 689-698
ISSN:
0168-1699
Subject:
apples, automation, cameras, color, databases, fruit crops, fruits, harvesting, models, radiometry, reflectance, yield forecasting, yield mapping
Abstract:
Fruit detection and localization will be essential for future agronomic management of fruit crops, with applications in yield prediction, yield mapping and automated harvesting. RGB-D cameras are promising sensors for fruit detection given that they provide geometrical information with color data. Some of these sensors work on the principle of time-of-flight (ToF) and, besides color and depth, provide the backscatter signal intensity. However, this radiometric capability has not been exploited for fruit detection applications. This work presents the KFuji RGB-DS database, composed of 967 multi-modal images containing a total of 12,839 Fuji apples. Compilation of the database allowed a study of the usefulness of fusing RGB-D and radiometric information obtained with Kinect v2 for fruit detection. To do so, the signal intensity was range corrected to overcome signal attenuation, obtaining an image that was proportional to the reflectance of the scene. A registration between RGB, depth and intensity images was then carried out. The Faster R-CNN model was adapted for use with five-channel input images: color (RGB), depth (D) and range-corrected intensity signal (S). Results show an improvement of 4.46% in F1-score when adding depth and range-corrected intensity channels, obtaining an F1-score of 0.898 and an AP of 94.8% when all channels are used. From our experimental results, it can be concluded that the radiometric capabilities of ToF sensors give valuable information for fruit detection.
Agid:
6429466