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Carotenoid Composition in 'Ataulfo' Mango and Their Bioavailability and Bioconversion to Vitamin A

Ornelas-Paz, J. de J., Gardea, A.A., Yahia, E.M., Failla, M.L.
Acta horticulturae 2010 no.877 pp. 1245-1252
Mangifera indica, beta-carotene, bioavailability, biotransformation, carrots, color, cultivars, dietary fat, digestion, equations, fruits, human cell lines, in vitro digestion, infant foods, liver, mango pulp, mangoes, micelles, rats, repletion, ripening, test meals, vitamin A, Mexico
'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most produced and consumed fruits in Mexico. This mango cultivar is claimed as a good source of carotenoids, however, its carotenoid profile has not been determined. In addition, bioaccesibility and bioavailability of carotenoids from fresh mangoes have not been tested. The present work included three experimental sections. In the first section the carotenoid profile of 'Ataulfo' mango was determined. The profile was composed of 25 carotenoids, and three were the most abundant. Then, the content of the major carotenoids was monitored during postharvest fruit ripening and correlated with the internal and external color values. The lowest and highest contents of all-trans-β-carotene, all-trans-violaxanthin dibutyrate and 9-cis-violaxanthin dibutyrate (major carotenoids) during the ripening process of 'Ataulfo' mangoes were 2.5-39.7, 0.2-15 and 0.2-7.5 microgram/g FW, respectively. The content of the evaluated carotenoids highly correlated with external and internal a* and h° color values. Equations (R2=0.86-0.94) to predict the content of the major carotenoids in 'Ataulfo' mangoes on the basis of their internal and external color values were obtained. In the second experimental section, the pulp of 'Ataulfo' mango at several stages of ripening was subjected to simulated in vitro digestion in absence or presence of chicken baby food (CBF), as dietary fat source, and the micellarization of β-carotene (BC) was evaluated. The micellarization of BC during simulated digestion significantly increased as the fruit ripened and when CBF was mixed with mango before digestion. BC-rich micelles generated during the digestion of fully ripened fruit and CBF were used to test the uptake of micellarized BC by monolayers of Caco-2 cells. Such cells incorporated 17% of BC contained in the test medium. In the last experimental section, vitamin A depleted rats (Wistar) were fed with cubes of fresh carrots or 'Ataulfo' mango pulp for 2 weeks. Both test meals provided the same amount of BC. After repletion the liver retinol was higher in the group fed with 'Ataulfo' mango (1642.3 microgram retinol/liver) than in the group fed with carrots (1285.1 microgram retinol/liver), suggesting that BC from 'Ataulfo' mango is more bioavailable than that from carrots. The obtained results demonstrated that 'Ataulfo' mango possesses a high content of BC, which is bioavailable and bioconverted to vitamin A.