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Involvement of polyamines in sucrose-induced tolerance to atrazine-mediated chemical stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

El Amrani, Abdelhak, Couée, Ivan, Berthomé, Richard, Ramel, Fanny, Gouesbet, Gwenola, Sulmon, Cécile
Journal of plant physiology 2019 v.238 pp. 1-11
Arabidopsis thaliana, arginine decarboxylase, atrazine, biosynthesis, cell death, genes, messenger RNA, mutants, oxidative stress, putrescine, seedlings, spermidine, spermine, stress tolerance, sucrose, transcriptomics, xenobiotics
Treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings with the PSII-inhibiting herbicide atrazine results in xenobiotic and oxidative stress, developmental arrest, induction of senescence and cell death processes. In contrast, exogenous sucrose supply confers a high level of atrazine stress tolerance, in relation with genome-wide modifications of transcript levels and regulation of genes involved in detoxification, defense and repair. However, the regulation mechanisms related to exogenous sucrose, involved in this sucrose-induced tolerance, are largely unknown. Characterization of these mechanisms was carried out through a combination of transcriptomic, metabolic, functional and mutant analysis under different conditions of atrazine exposure. Exogenous sucrose was found to differentially regulate genes involved in polyamine synthesis. ARGININE DECARBOXYLASE ADC1 and ADC2 paralogues, which encode the rate-limiting enzyme (EC of the first step of polyamine biosynthesis, were strongly upregulated by sucrose treatment in the presence of atrazine. Such regulation occurred concomitantly with significant changes of major polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine). Physiological characterization of a mutant affected in ADC activity and exogenous treatments with sucrose, putrescine, spermidine and spermine further showed that modification of polyamine synthesis and of polyamine levels could play adaptive roles in response to atrazine stress, and that putrescine and spermine had antagonistic effects, especially in the presence of sucrose. This interplay between sucrose, putrescine and spermine is discussed in relation with survival and anti-death mechanisms in the context of chemical stress exposure.