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A review of membrane development in membrane distillation for emulsified industrial or shale gas wastewater treatments with feed containing hybrid impurities

Siyal, Muhammad Irfan, Lee, Chang-Kyu, Park, Chansoo, Khan, Aftab Ahmed, Kim, Jong-Oh
Journal of environmental management 2019 v.243 pp. 45-66
commercialization, cost effectiveness, desalination, distillation, effluents, fouling, industrial applications, industrial wastewater, oils, shale gas, sodium chloride, surfactants, temperature, wastewater treatment
Investigations on membrane materials for membrane distillation (MD) and its applications have been ongoing since the 1990s. However, a lack of materials that produce robustly stable and up-to-the-mark membranes for MD for different industrial applications remains an ongoing problem. This paper provides an overview of materials developed for MD applications. Although key aspects of published articles reviewed in this paper pertain to MD membranes synthesized for desalination, future MD can also be applied to organic wastewater containing surfactants with inorganic compounds, either with the help of hybrid treatment processes or with customized membrane materials. Many industrial discharges produce effluents at a very high temperature, which is an available driving force for MD. However, there remains a lack of cost-effective membrane materials. Amphiphobic and omniphobic membranes have recently been developed for treating emulsified and shale gas produced water, but the problem of organic fouling and pore wetting remains a major challenge, especially when NaCl and other inorganic impurities are present, which further deteriorate separation performance. Therefore, further advancements in materials are required for the treatment of emulsified industrial wastewater containing surfactants, salts, and for oil or shale gas wastewater for its commercialized reuse. Integrated MD systems, however, may represent a major change in shale gas wastewater and emulsified wastewater that are difficult to treat.