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Comparison of high-throughput microextraction techniques, MEPS and μ-SPEed, for the determination of polyphenols in baby food by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography

Casado, Natalia, Perestrelo, Rosa, Silva, Catarina L., Sierra, Isabel, Câmara, José S.
Food chemistry 2019 v.292 pp. 14-23
chemical species, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, ferulic acid, gallic acid, infant foods, microextraction, myricetin, naringenin, nutritive value, pH, polyphenols, rutin, solid phase extraction, solvents, sorbents, ultra-performance liquid chromatography
In this study, two different high-throughput microextraction techniques, microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) and micro solid phase extraction (μ-SPEed®), were evaluated and compared, regarding the performance criteria, for the isolation of polyphenols from baby foods prior to their determination by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC). To achieve the best performance, influential parameters affecting extraction efficiency (including type of sorbent, number of extraction cycles, pH, elution solvent and elution volume) were systematically studied and optimized. To enable an effective comparison, selectivity, linear dynamic range, method detection (LODs) and quantification limits (LOQs), accuracy, precision and extraction yields, were determined and discussed for both techniques. Both methods provided the analytical selectivity required for the analysis of polyphenols in baby foods. However, μ-SPEed® sample treatment in combination with UHPLC-PDA has demonstrated to be more sensitive, selective and efficient than MEPS. Appropriate linearity in solvent and matrix-based calibrations, very low LODs and LOQs, ranging between 1.37 and 13.57 μg kg−1 and 4.57 – 45.23 μg kg−1, respectively, suitable recoveries (from 67 to 97%) and precision (RSD values < 5%) were achieved for the selected analytes by μ-SPEed®/UHPLC-PDA. Finally, the validated methodologies were applied to different commercial baby foods. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, ferulic acid, rutin, naringenin and myricetin are the most dominant polyphenols present in the studied baby food samples. The proposed methodology revealed a promising approach to evaluate the nutritional quality of this kind of products.