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Carbon quantum dots from roasted Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Formation, biodistribution and cytotoxicity
- Song, Yukun, Wu, Yanyang, Wang, Haitao, Liu, Shan, Song, Liang, Li, Shen, Tan, Mingqian
- Food chemistry 2019 v.293 pp. 387-395
- Salmo salar, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, blood-brain barrier, brain, carbon quantum dots, cytotoxicity, digestive tract, energy, glycolysis, human health, image analysis, in vivo studies, kidneys, liver, mice, moieties, nitrogen, optical properties, oxygen, rats, roasting, uncertainty
- The endogenous carbon quantum dots (CQDs) produced during food processing have potential uncertainty to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the formation, biodistribution and cytotoxicity of CQDs in roasted Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that the CQDs were mainly composed of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. The morphology, functional groups and optical properties were highly dependent on the roasting time. In vivo experiments in mice demonstrated that the CQDs distributed in the digestive tract, kidney, liver, and even brain, which indicated that they could cross the blood–brain barrier. The cell imaging results indicated that the CQDs could readily gain access to the normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, and caused autophagosome formation. The proportion of live cells decreased to 34.62% at 6 mg mL−1 of CQDs, and the energy generation route was changed from aerobic to glycolytic metabolism.