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Occurrence of periodontitis and dental wear in dairy goats
- Campello, Paula L., Borsanelli, Ana C., Agostinho, Sabrina D., Schweitzer, Christiane M., Gaetti-Jardim Jr., Elerson, Döbereiner, Jürgen, Dutra, Iveraldo S.
- Small ruminant research 2019 v.175 pp. 133-141
- Actinomyces, Bacteroides forsythus, Cynodon nlemfuensis, Enterococcus faecium, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Panicum, Prevotella nigrescens, Saanen, animal welfare, biofilm, confidence interval, corn silage, dairy goats, ecological competition, grass hay, herds, hybrids, microorganisms, pathogens, periodontitis, polymerase chain reaction, risk factors, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), t-test, teeth, tooth wear
- Periodontitis and excessive tooth wear are considered two of the most important oral diseases affecting the health, performance, and welfare of small ruminants. The present study aimed to describe the occurrence of periodontitis and excessive wear of the incisor and masticatory teeth among a herd of dairy goats, the presence of possible risk factors, and the presence of microorganisms considered potential periodontal pathogens. For this, 150 dairy goats of the Saanen and Pardo Alpina breeds with different periodontal conditions and aged 13 months to 8 years were clinically examined. Animals were fed a commercial ration specific for each age group and supplied at will bulky hay composed of Tifton grass hay (Cynodon nlemfuensis) or massai (Panicum hybrid vr. Massai) and corn silage. Scores from 0 to 3 were initially attributed to the presence and intensity of gingival recession, presence of supragingival biofilm, and wear of the dental crown. The presence of 23 microorganisms considered, as potential pathogens was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from subgingival biofilm samples obtained from periodontal pockets with clinical probing depth of ≥5 mm (n = 22) and the gingival sulcus of periodontally healthy animals (n = 22). The occurrence of periodontal lesions, characterized by gingival recession in at least one tooth, was 70.7% (106/150) of animals for which 28.0% (42/150) had lesions in the incisor teeth and 62.0% (93/150) had lesions in the masticatory teeth. On examining the teeth, 96.0% (144/150) of animals presented levels of wear with a degree of severity of 1 to 3. Among the animals, 40.0% (60/150) had wear on the incisor and masticatory teeth together; 37.3% (56/150) had wear only on the masticatory teeth; and 18.6% (28/150) had wear only on the incisor teeth. Goats older than 36 months were the most had gingival recession, which had a greater frequency and degree of severity in the masticatory teeth (p = 0.001). This same group had a greater occurrence of wear and severity of wear in the masticatory teeth (p = <0.001; confidence interval [CI] = 0.40). The occurrence of gingival recession and wear on the incisor teeth had an inverse relationship (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively. However, in the masticatory teeth, there was statistical significance between the occurrence of gingival recession and wear (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively). Goats with higher supragingival biofilm scores had a higher frequency and severity of gingival recession in the masticatory teeth (p = 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively), and a higher degree of wear in the incisors (p = <0.001). In samples from sites with periodontitis, Fusobacterium nucleatum (81.8%), Tannerella forsythia (63.0%), and Fusobacterium necrophorum (63.0%) were the most prevalent microorganisms. In periodontally healthy animals, the most prevalent microorganisms were Fusobacterium nucleatum (68.0%), Tannerella forsythia (27.0%), Actinomyces israelli (27.0%), Prevotella nigrescens (22.7%), Enterococcus faecium (22.7%), and Fusobacterium necrophorum (18.0%). Significant statistical associations between the presence of identified periodontal pathogens and the occurrence of periodontitis and its clinical signs such as periodontal pocket, gingival recession, suppuration, and mobility of the dental unit were evidenced by the Student's t-test and Spearman's correlation test. The Spearman correlation test indicated a statistical significance of favorable ecological interactions in the subgingival biofilm of the animals studied.