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The role of long-term mineral and organic fertilisation treatment in changing pathogen and symbiont community composition in soil
- Soonvald, Liina, Loit, Kaire, Runno-Paurson, Eve, Astover, Alar, Tedersoo, Leho
- Applied soil ecology 2019 v.141 pp. 45-53
- Oomycetes, analysis of variance, animal manures, community structure, fertilizer application, field experimentation, flowering, growing season, manure amendments, mutualism, mycorrhizal fungi, nitrogen, nitrogen fertilizers, organic fertilizers, plant pathogens, roots, soil, soil sampling, symbionts, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae
- Application of organic fertilisers to soil prevents erosion, improves fertility and may suppress certain soil-borne plant pathogens, but it is still unclear how different trophic groups of fungi and oomycetes respond to long-term fertilisation treatment. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of different fertilisation regimes on fungal and oomycete pathogen- and mycorrhizal symbiont diversity and community structure in both soil and roots, using PacBio SMRT sequencing. The field experiment included three fertilisation treatments that have been applied since 1989: nitrogen fertilisation (WOM), nitrogen fertilisation with manure amendment (FYM) and alternative organic fertilisation (AOF), each applied at five different rates. Soil samples were collected three times during the growing season, while root samples were collected during the flowering stage. There was no influence of the studied variables on soil and root pathogen richness. Contrary to our hypothesis, pathogen relative abundance in both soil and roots was significantly higher in plots with the AOF treatment. Furthermore, richness and relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi decreased significantly in the AOF treatment. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) demonstrated the effect of fertilisation treatment on pathogen community composition in both soil and roots. Our findings indicate that organic fertilisers may not always benefit soil microbial community composition. Therefore, further studies are needed to understand how fertilisation affects mycorrhizal mutualists and pathogens.