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A review on cleaner strategies for chromium industrial wastewater: Present research and future perspective
- GracePavithra, Kirubanandam, Jaikumar, V., Kumar, P. Senthil, SundarRajan, PanneerSelvam
- Journal of cleaner production 2019 v.228 pp. 580-593
- adsorption, aquatic environment, biological treatment, chromium, effluents, electrochemistry, electrocoagulation, health effects assessments, industrial wastewater, mining, oxidation, particulates, photocatalysis, tanneries, toxicity, wastewater treatment
- In current era, the presence of chromium in aquatic environment are increasing diversely due to evolution activities. Chromium exist in various oxidation state and among them hexavalent chromium is viewed as natural contamination with high poisonous quality and portability. The release of chromium and its particulates go into oceanic medium by the effluents released from ventures like tanneries, materials, mining, coloring, printing, photographic and medicinal industries. The clean removal of chromium from industrial water/wastewater treatment process is a challenge due to improper technologies selection from economical, technical and environmental aspects. This synoptic review focus on chromium occurrence, its toxicity, impacts on environments, health effects and also deals with the emerging techniques such as electrocoagulation, adsorption, biological treatment, membrane treatment, photocatalysis prospects and drawbacks in detail. The problems such as cost, transitional compound toxicity, treatment efficiency are listed out in this research. The paper critically highlights the hybrid technologies of electrochemical and biological treatment for cleaner removal of chromium to carry over future research.