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ATP, Mg2+, Nuclear Phase Separation, and Genome Accessibility
- Wright, Roni H.G., Le Dily, Francois, Beato, Miguel
- Trends in biochemical sciences 2019 v.44 no.7 pp. 565-574
- adenosine triphosphate, chromatin, droplets, gene expression, genes, liquids, magnesium, organelles, separation
- Misregulation of the processes controlling eukaryotic gene expression can result in disease. Gene expression is influenced by the surrounding chromatin; hence the nuclear environment is also of vital importance. Recently, understanding of chromatin hierarchical folding has increased together with the discovery of membrane-less organelles which are distinct, dynamic liquid droplets that merge and expand within the nucleus. These ‘sieve’-like regions may compartmentalize and separate functionally distinct regions of chromatin. This article aims to discuss recent studies on nuclear phase within the context of poly(ADP-ribose), ATP, and Mg2+ levels, and we propose a combinatorial complex role for these molecules in phase separation and genome regulation. We also discuss the implications of this process for gene regulation and discuss possible strategies to test this.