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In vivo protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis oil against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

El-Hadary, Abdalla E., Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed, Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy
PharmaNutrition 2019 v.9 pp. 100151
Rosmarinus officinalis, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, animal models, antioxidants, aspartate transaminase, blood serum, carbon tetrachloride, cholesterol, creatinine, delta-tocopherol, delta-tocotrienol, dentistry, drugs, fatty acids, functional foods, glutathione, hepatoprotective effect, hepatotoxicity, histopathology, lethal dose 50, lipid composition, liver, malondialdehyde, necrosis, olive oil, oral administration, oxidation, phenolic compounds, pollutants, protein composition, rats, renal function, tissues, triacylglycerols, urea, uric acid
Exposure to environmental pollutants such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) causes liver injuries. There are claims that extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis protect from such injuries. This study aimed to explore the hepatoprotective effects of cold-pressed R. officinalis oil (CPRO) against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in the experimental rats. Fatty acids and bioactive lipids of CPRO were analyzed. CPRO was orally administered to rats in two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg in olive oil) for 8 weeks. Indices of liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and oxidation were evaluated in rats’ serum and tissues. In CPRO the percentages of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and saturated fatty acids were 42.3%, 41.7%, and 15.8%, respectively. CPRO contained high amounts of total phenolic compounds (7.20 mg GAE/g). α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocotrienols accounted for 18, 12, 29, and 158 mg/100 g CPRO, respectively, while α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols accounted for 291, 22, 1145, and 41 mg/100 g CPRO, respectively. The LD50 at 24 h was 5780 mg/kg. Treatment with 200 mg/kg CPRO caused a decrease in creatinine, urea and uric acid levels to 0.66, 28.3 and 3.42 mg/dL, respectively. After 8 weeks of administration, levels of total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC), total triacylglycerol (TAG), low dentistry lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low dentistry lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) were decreased to 565, 165, 192, 75.6 and 38.5 mg/L, respectively. Malondialdehyde levels in liver were reduced and glutathione levels were elevated in CPRO-treated rats. CPRO reduced the activity of ALT, AST, and ALP as well as kidney function markers, lipid and protein profiles. Histopathological examination of liver indicated that CPRO administration reduced fatty degenerations, cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis. CPRO possessed a hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced toxicity, mediated possibly due to the antioxidant traits of CPRO. CPRO contains high levels of phenolics and tocols, which is a scavenger of reactive species making the oil a promising material for functional foods and pharmaceuticals.