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MXenes and ultrasonication

Malaki, Massoud, Maleki, Aziz, Varma, Rajender S.
Journal of materials chemistry A 2019 v.7 no.18 pp. 10843-10857
batteries, carbides, chemistry, delamination, mechanical properties, medical equipment, nitrides, sonication, ultrasonic treatment
MXenes, 2D transition metal carbides/nitrides, with superior electrical, optical, and mechanical properties have been a recent discovery and have already been deployed in a variety of fields such as batteries, composites, sensors and medical devices. Delamination and dispersion of MXene flakes into mono- or few-layered sheets is one of the most important steps while producing MXenes since the flakes with single or few layers, large lateral size, few defects as well as good exfoliation and distribution are usually demanded in this ever-growing domain. Ultrasonication is a primary tool in delaminating, separating and exfoliating MXene sheets with the prowess to dramatically accelerate the process and produce a larger fraction of high-quality 2D sheets. This mini review discusses the recent advancements in sonochemical synthesis of MXene materials starting with the sonication basics, intricacies of the underlying physics and mechanisms, different sonicator settings, and finally focusing on the key effects and parameters that control the defect, size, morphology, and surface properties and the synthesis time of ensuing MXenes. It is believed that the sonochemistry of MXene materials is an emerging area with ample opportunities and lots of potential to produce novel materials and structures.