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A blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the safety of oclacitinib in cats

Lopes, Natália Lôres, Campos, Diefrey Ribeiro, Machado, Marília Alves, Alves, Mariana Silva Revoredo, de Souza, Manuela Silva Gomes, da Veiga, Cristiano Chaves Pessoa, Merlo, Alexandre, Scott, Fábio Barbour, Fernandes, Julio Israel
BMC veterinary research 2019 v.15 no.1 pp. 137
cats, corn starch, creatinine, cytokines, gastrointestinal system, hematologic tests, liver, maleates, mixed breeds, monocytes, neutrophils, non-specific protein-tyrosine kinase, pH, placebos, pruritus, specific gravity, toxicity, urine, vomiting
BACKGROUND: Oclacitinib is a Janus kinase (JAK) 1 enzyme inhibitor and blocks JAK1-dependent cytokines and is used to control pruritus. Studies available in cats are very limited and as there is a potential role for oclacitinib in the control of pruritus in this specie, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical effects of oral oclacitinib maleate in healthy cats. RESULTS: Thirty mixed-breed cats weighing from 2.1 to 5.3 kg each were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of 10 animals each. Cats in two groups received oclacitinib at 1 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg q 12 h orally for 28 days. Cats in the third group were given placebo tablets (cornstarch) q 12 h orally for 28 days. Oclacitinib maleate was well tolerated during the study and few adverse events were observed in treated cats. Clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any animals treated at 1 mg/kg. Gastrointestinal clinical signs observed in the 2 mg/kg group included vomiting in two of the 10 cats and soft stools in two cats. One cat treated with placebo also exhibited soft stools. No significant differences were observed between the groups for hematologic analyses performed during the study. There was a slight increase in neutrophils and monocytes and a decrease in eosinophil mean counts in treated cats. Mean renal and liver enzymes remained normal throughout the entire study. A small, but significant increase in fructosamine levels was observed for both treated groups compared with placebo; however, values remained within the normal reference range. There were no significant difference between treated groups and the placebo group for urine specific gravity, pH, or urine protein to creatinine ratio mean values. CONCLUSIONS: Oclacitinib maleate was well tolerated by cats at 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg and appeared to be safe for this species when administered orally twice daily for 28 days. More studies would be needed to demonstrate if oclacitinib maleate may be a suitable alternative to treat pruritic cats.