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Toxic and essential element concentrations in different honey types

Spirić, Danka, Ćirić, Jelena, Đorđević, Vesna, Nikolić, Dragica, Janković, Saša, Nikolić, Aleksandra, Petrović, Zoran, Katanić, Nenad, Teodorović, Vlado
International journal of environmental analytical chemistry 2019 v.99 no.5 pp. 474-485
Acacia, acidity, amylases, arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, detection limit, electrical conductivity, enzyme activity, heavy metals, honey, honeydew, hydroxymethylfurfural, iron, laws and regulations, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, nickel, potassium, reducing sugars, selenium, sodium, statistical analysis, sucrose, toxicity, water content, zinc, Serbia
The physicochemical parameters (free acidity, moisture content, sucrose content, hydroxymethylfurfural, reducing sugars, electrical conductivity, diastase activity and water-insoluble content), elements (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, K, Na, Ca, Mg) and heavy metal/metalloid concentrations (Cd, Hg, Pb and As) of 84 honeys (linden, multifloral, honeydew and acacia) from Serbia, were analyzed using ICP-MS. Concerning the physicochemical parameters, all tested honeys were found to meet European Legislation (EC Directive 2001/110). Potassium was the major element, ranging between 943.9 ± 538.6 mg/kg and 2563 ± 1817 mg/kg. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the concentrations of Zn, Mn, Co and Na between the honeys. Selenium and Hg levels were below the limits of detection. Positive correlations were found between electrical conductivity and most of the elements. The present study showed that Serbian honey examined were of good quality according to its physicochemical parameters and met safety criteria concerning the concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb and As.