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Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop combined with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic oestrogens from human urine and water samples
- Niu, Zongliang, Zhang, Jun, Wu, Dongming, Wen, Yingying
- International journal of environmental analytical chemistry 2019 v.99 no.5 pp. 444-453
- diethylstilbestrol, high performance liquid chromatography, lakes, liquid-phase microextraction, pH, rapid methods, solidification, solvents, standard deviation, tap water, urine
- A novel, simple and rapid method, termed dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop coupled to high performance liquid chromatography, was developed for analysis of three phenolic oestrogens including diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol and hexestrol in human urine and water samples. The parameters of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop procedure including sample pH, type and volume of disperser solvent, and type and volume of extraction solvent were optimised. High performance liquid chromatography was applied for the phenolic oestrogens’ analysis. Under the optimum extraction and detection conditions, excellent analytical performances were attained. Good linear relationships (r ≥ 0.998) between peak area and concentration for diethylstilbestrol and dienestrol were optimised from 0.1 to 20 µg/mL, for hexestrol from 2 to 50 µg/mL. Method detection limits of 28.6–666.7 ng/mL were achieved. Satisfactory relative recoveries ranging from 72% to 122% were determined for urine, lake and tap water samples, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of 1.5–9.8%. The developed dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop-high performance liquid chromatography method has a great potential in routine residual analysis of trace phenolic oestrogens in biological and water samples.