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Liming effects on soil pH and crop yield depend on lime material type, application method and rate, and crop species: a global meta-analysis

Li, Yuan, Cui, Song, Chang, Scott X., Zhang, Qingping
Journal of soils and sediments 2019 v.19 no.3 pp. 1393-1406
agroecosystems, calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, calcium oxide, crop yield, cropping systems, crops, data collection, liming, liming materials, meta-analysis, neutralization, soil organic matter, soil pH, soil quality
PURPOSE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the interactive effects of environmental and managerial factors on soil pH and crop yield related to liming across different cropping systems on a global scale. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study examined the effects of liming rate, lime application method, and liming material type on various soil chemical properties and crop yield based on data collected from 175 published studies worldwide since 1980. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The most important variables that drive changes in soil pH and crop yield were liming rate and crop species, respectively. Soil conditions, such as initial soil organic matter and soil pH, were more important for increasing soil pH in field-based experiments, while lime material type and application method were more important for improving crop yield. To effectively neutralize soil acidity, the optimum liming duration, rate, and material type were < 3 years, 3–6 Mg ha⁻¹, and Ca (OH)₂, respectively. Averaged across different crop species, the application of CaO, CaCO₃, Ca (OH)₂, and CaMg (CO₃)₂ increased yield by 13.2, 34.3, 29.2, and 66.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis will help design liming management strategies to ameliorate soil acidity and thus improve crop yield in agroecosystems.