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Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Pseuderanthemum palatiferum (Nees) Radlk. Using Subcritical Water and Conventional Solvents: A Comparison Study

Ho, Truc Cong, Chun, Byung‐Soo
Journal of food science 2019 v.84 no.5 pp. 1201-1207
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity, apigenin, bioactive compounds, cost effectiveness, diosgenin, functional foods, glucose, high performance liquid chromatography, kaempferol, leaves, methanol, polysaccharides, solvents, temperature, virulent strains
The present study investigated the recovery of antioxidative compounds obtained from Pseuderanthemum palatiferum (Nees) Radlk. and their biological activities using subcritical water in comparison with hot water, Soxhlet, and methanol extraction. In this study, high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and three commonly used assays, that is, 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl assays, 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid), and ferric reducing antioxidant power, were employed to measure the number of valuable compounds and their antioxidant capacities, respectively. Additionally, the antimicrobial ability of the various extracts against seven pathogenic bacteria strains was assessed. The results demonstrated that the extracts obtained from subcritical water extraction (SWE) contain the highest amount of saponin (33.82 ± 2.08 mg diosgenin/g), phenolic (34.87 ± 0.29 mg CE/g), and protein (104.66 ± 7.63 mg BSA/g), which are obtained at 170 °C, 190 °C, and 230 °C, respectively. The highest amounts of total sugar and flavonoids (211.73 ± 1.58 mg glucose/g and 20.71 ± 0.42 mg RE/g, respectively) were obtained at lower temperature (130 °C and 130 °C, respectively), and these values were higher than those obtained from hot water, Soxhlet, and methanol extraction. HPLC analysis indicated that the highest amount of apigenin (3.46 ± 0.03 mg/g) and kaempferol (2.43 ± 0.03 mg/g) were obtained by SWE at 170 °C and 190 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts from SWE exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against five of the seven pathogenic bacterial strains tested compared with those obtained from conventional extraction methods. Therefore, subcritical water could be utilized as a cost‐effective and green solvent to extract valuable compounds from P. palatiferum (Nees) Radlk. leaf. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Subcritical water was able to recover more bioactive compounds from the sample, such as phenolics, flavonoids, saponin, protein, and polysaccharides, than conventional solvents. The mixture of polyphenolic–polysaccharide–protein conjugates could be used in further steps, isolation, and purification, and applied to functional food.