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Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts associated to spontaneous and inoculated fermenting grapes from Spanish vineyards

de Celis, M., Ruiz, J., Martín‐Santamaría, M., Alonso, A., Marquina, D., Navascués, E., Gómez‐Flechoso, M.Á., Belda, I., Santos, A.
Letters in applied microbiology 2019 v.68 no.6 pp. 580-588
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, databases, fermentation, grapes, strain differences, vineyards, viticulture, wine industry, winemaking, wines, yeasts
The use of commercial yeast strains is a common practice in winemaking leading to a predictable quality in wine production, avoiding stuck or sluggish fermentations. However, the use of commercial yeasts leads to a consequent reduction in autochthonous microbial diversity. In this study, 1047 isolates from three Spanish appellations of origin were checked for fingerprinting on interdelta polymorphisms and the strain composition and diversity analysed using an extensible open‐source platform for processing and analysis of an in‐house polymorphism database developed for this study. Ancient vineyards managed with organic practices showed intermediate to low levels of strains diversity indicating the existence of stable populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. A drastic reduction in the number of different S. cerevisiae strains was observed in vineyards with cellars using a selected autochthonous S. cerevisiae strain for winemaking. Contrary, the use of allochthonous commercial strains in wineries did not seem to affect the native S. cerevisiae strain composition and diversity. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to compare different viticulture and oenological practices to determine their influence on the composition and diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in wine fermentations. The study shows that the use of autochthonous strains of S. cerevisiae as starters for wine fermentation could have an important incidence on S. cerevisiae strains diversity in surrounding vineyards. The use of autochthonous strains of S. cerevisiae reduced the detected number of S. cerevisiae strains, a fact that was not observed when allochthonous commercial strains were used. Furthermore, vineyards managed with organic practices showed intermediate to low levels of S. cerevisiae strain diversity, whereas conventional practices showed higher levels.