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Carbon budgets of wetland ecosystems in China

Xiao, Derong, Deng, Lei, Kim, Dong‐Gill, Huang, Chunbo, Tian, Kun
Global change biology 2019 v.25 no.6 pp. 2061-2076
biosphere, carbon, carbon sinks, climate change, climatic factors, data collection, ecosystem respiration, emissions, gross primary productivity, lakes, marshes, net ecosystem production, rivers, soil, surveys, temperature, terrestrial ecosystems, uncertainty, China
Wetlands contain a large proportion of carbon (C) in the biosphere and partly affect climate by regulating C cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. China contains Asia's largest wetlands, accounting for about 10% of the global wetland area. Although previous studies attempted to estimate C budget in China's wetlands, uncertainties remain. We conducted a synthesis to estimate C uptake and emission of wetland ecosystems in China using a dataset compiled from published literature. The dataset comprised 193 studies, including 370 sites representing coastal, river, lake and marsh wetlands across China. In addition, C stocks of different wetlands in China were estimated using unbiased data from the China Second Wetlands Survey. The results showed that China's wetlands sequestered 16.87 Pg C (315.76 Mg C/ha), accounting for about 3.8% of C stocks in global wetlands. Net ecosystem productivity, jointly determined by gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration, exhibited annual C sequestration of 120.23 Tg C. China's wetlands had a total gaseous C loss of 173.20 Tg C per year from soils, including 154.26 Tg CO₂‐C and 18.94 Tg CH₄‐C emissions. Moreover, C stocks, uptakes and gaseous losses varied with wetland types, and were affected by geographic location and climatic factors (precipitation and temperature). Our results provide better estimation of the C budget in China's wetlands and improve understanding of their contribution to the global C cycle in the context of global climate change.