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Muscular performance and body composition changes following multi-joint versus combined multi- and single-joint exercises in aging adults

Bezerra, Ewertton de Souza, Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira, Orssatto, Lucas Bet da Rosa, da Silva, Mariane Eichendorf, Willardson, Jeffrey Michael, Simão, Roberto
Applied physiology, nutrition and metabolism 2018 v.43 no.6 pp. 602-608
adults, body composition, chest, education programs, statistical models, strength training
The aim of the present study was to compare muscular performance and body composition changes following low-volume resistance-training programs consisting of multi-joint (MJ) exercises (cable chest press and seated row) versus a combination of multi- and single-joint (MJ+SJ) exercises (cable chest press, seated row, biceps curl, and triceps extension). Thirty untrained healthy aging adults were randomly assigned to 3 groups: MJ (n = 11), MJ+SJ (n = 11), and control (n = 8). Twelve-repetition maximums (12-RMs) for the cable chest press and seated row, localized muscular endurance for the elbow flexors handgrip strength, and body composition were assessed before and after the 8-week training program. All comparisons were analyzed via a mixed-model analysis with repeated measures (group × time) and the Bonferroni post hoc test (p < 0.05). The MJ and MJ+SJ groups increased performance in the 12-RM cable chest press (MJ = 61.5% ± 24.6% and MJ+SJ = 71.1% ± 25.6%), 12-RM seated row (MJ = 46.4% ± 26.3% and MJ+SJ = 51.5% ± 21.0%), localized muscular endurance (MJ = 24.7% ± 16.7% and MJ+SJ = 37.0% ± 11.4%), and handgrip strength (MJ = 9.3% ± 10.4% and MJ+SJ = 16.6% ± 25.3%) after the intervention. Body composition (i.e., trunk and upper limb fat and lean mass) did not change for any groups. No significant differences were observed between the MJ versus the MJ+SJ protocols after the intervention for any variables. In conclusion, for aging adults, either MJ or MJ+SJ low-volume resistance training resulted in similar increases in 12-RM, localized muscular endurance, and handgrip strength, without changes in body composition after 8 weeks of training.