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A maternal low-protein diet and neonatal overnutrition result in similar changes to glomerular morphology and renal cortical oxidative stress measures in male Wistar rats

Pedroza, Anderson, Ferreira, Diorginis Soares, Santana, David F., da Silva, Pedro Thiago, de Aguiar Júnior, Francisco Carlos Amanajás, Sellitti, Donald F., Lagranha, Claudia J.
Applied physiology, nutrition and metabolism 2019 v.44 no.2 pp. 164-171
antioxidant activity, cardiovascular diseases, casein, catalase, cortex, glutathione, glutathione transferase, laboratory animals, lactation, lipid peroxidation, litter size, low protein diet, males, overfeeding, oxidation, oxidative stress, pregnancy, progeny, rats, superoxide dismutase, thiols
There is a strong correlation between inadequate gestational and postpartum nutrition and the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the effects of a maternal low-protein diet and neonatal overfeeding on the oxidative balance and morphology of the renal cortex of male Wistar rats. Two independent protocols were used. First, pregnant Wistar rats received diets containing either 17% (normal protein) or 8% (low protein) casein throughout pregnancy and lactation. Second, the litter size was reduced by one-third on the third postnatal day to induce overnourishment in offspring. At 30 days, the oxidative balance and morphology of the renal cortex were analyzed. There was a small but significant increase in renal corpuscle area in the low protein (LP, 5%) and overnutrition (ON, 8%) groups. Glomerular tuft area also increased in LP (6%) and ON (9%), as did glomerular cellularity (LP, +11%; ON, +12%). In the oxidative stress analyses, both nutritional insults significantly elevated lipid peroxidation (LP, +18%; ON, +135%) and protein oxidation (LP, +40%; ON, +65%) while significantly reducing nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses, measured as reduced glutathione (LP, –32%; ON, –45%) and total thiol content (LP, –28%; ON, –24%). We also observed a decrease in superoxide dismutase (LP, –78%; ON, –51%), catalase (LP, –18%; ON, –61%), and glutathione S-transferase (only in ON, –44%) activities. Our results demonstrate that nutritional insults, even those of a very different nature, during perinatal development can result in similar changes in oxidative parameters and glomerular morphology in the renal cortex.