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Oxidative stress, inflammation, psychological status, and severity of respiratory infections are negatively affected during the pre-contest period in amateur bodybuilders
- Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de Moraes, Felipe Carmo de Moura, Thamires Cristina da Costa Moraes, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de Sousa, Thiago dos Santos Rosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Fernanda Maria Machado Maia, Jonato Prestes
- Applied physiology, nutrition and metabolism 2019 v.44 no.5 pp. 468-476
- antioxidant activity, athletes, blood serum, catalase, emotions, energy intake, enzyme activity, food intake, glutathione-disulfide reductase, immunoglobulins, inflammation, interleukin-1beta, lean body mass, lipids, oxidative stress, protein intake, questionnaires, respiratory tract diseases, sports, superoxide dismutase, surveys, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, vigor, vitamin A, weight loss, Wisconsin
- We examined whether off-season (OffS) and pre-contest (PreC) periods affect blood oxidative stress, inflammatory, immunological, and psychological markers in 20 bodybuilders. The athletes recorded their food intake (3-day record), physical activities, mood states (Profile of Mood States, POMS), recovery-stress (Recovery–Stress Questionnaire for Athletes, RESTQ-Sport), and upper respiratory symptoms (Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey, WURSS-21), and blood was obtained for biochemical analysis. Almost all athletes were in positive energy balance during OffS, while bodybuilders presented markedly restricted energy intake (∼45%) leading to loss of weight (–9%) and fat mass (–45%) with preservation of fat-free mass in PreC. Protein intake was high during both periods, while lipid and carbohydrate intakes were reduced ∼50% in PreC. Almost all athletes consumed 100% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for micronutrients in OffS, while 45% and 75% of the athletes had intakes below the RDA for vitamins A and E in PreC. Oxidative damage to lipids (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), protein carbonyls, and the TBARS/total antioxidant capacity ratio increased in PreC (32%, 27%, 60%), as did plasma tumor necrosis factor α (4-fold) and WURSS-21 scores (25%). There were no significant changes in serum catalase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase activities nor in interleukin 1β and immunoglobulins. In PreC, POMS showed negative changes in vigor (–20%), fatigue (23%), and total mood disturbance (35%), and RESTQ-Sport showed alterations for general and sport stress (34% and 50%, respectively) and sport recovery (–23%). Thus, PreC negatively affects nutrient intake, which may worsen oxidative stress, inflammation, psychological status, and the severity of respiratory infections in bodybuilders.