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Pea-protein alginate encapsulation adversely affects development of clinical signs of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis in mice treated with probiotics

Varankovich, Natallia, Grigoryan, Alexander, Brown, Kirsty, Inglis, G. Douglas, Uwiera, Richard R.E., Nickerson, Michael T., Korber, Darren R.
Canadian journal of microbiology 2018 v.64 no.10 pp. 744-760
Citrobacter rodentium, GRAS substances, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, abnormal behavior, animal disease models, body weight, calcium alginate, cecum, colitis, colon, cytokines, diarrhea, dietary supplements, encapsulation, feces, freeze drying, histopathology, inflammation, ingredients, mice, microbial communities, monitoring, mucosa, pathogens, pea protein, probiotics, protein isolates, ribosomal RNA, sequence analysis, signs and symptoms (animals and humans)
The efficacy of two strains of Lactobacillus probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052) immobilized in microcapsules composed of pea protein isolate (PPI) and alginate microcapsules was assessed using a mouse model of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis. Accordingly, 4-week-old mice were fed diets supplemented with freeze-dried probiotics (group P), probiotic-containing microcapsules (group PE) (lyophilized PPI–alginate microcapsules containing probiotics), or PPI–alginate microcapsules containing no probiotics (group E). Half of the mice (controls, groups P, PE, and E) received C. rodentium by gavage 2 weeks after initiation of feeding. Daily monitoring of disease symptoms (abnormal behavior, diarrhea, etc.) and body weights was undertaken. Histopathological changes in colonic and cecal tissues, cytokine expression levels, and pathogen and probiotic densities in feces were examined, and the microbial communities of the distal colon mucosa were characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing. Infection with C. rodentium led to marked progression of infectious colitis, as revealed by symptomatic and histopathological data, changes in cytokine expression, and alteration of composition of mucosal communities. Probiotics led to changes in most of the disease markers but did not have a significant impact on cytokine profiles in infected animals. On the basis of cytokine expression analyses and histopathological data, it was evident that encapsulation materials (pea protein and calcium alginate) contributed to inflammation and worsened a set of symptoms in the cecum. These results suggest that even though food ingredients may be generally recognized as safe, they may in fact contribute to the development of an inflammatory response in certain animal disease models.