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Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolated from patients in Egypt

Yu, Fuchang, Amer, Said, Qi, Meng, Wang, Rongjun, Wang, Yange, Zhang, Sumei, Jian, Fuchun, Ning, Changshen, El Batae, Hassan, Zhang, Longxian
Acta tropica 2019 v.196 pp. 66-71
Giardia lamblia, developing countries, fecal examination, genes, genetic variation, genotyping, giardiasis, giardin protein, glutamate dehydrogenase, hospitals, humans, mixed infection, parasites, patients, polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, triose-phosphate isomerase, Egypt
Human giardiasis is a common waterborne/foodborne parasitic disease worldwide, especially in developing countries. Prevalence and molecular identity of Giardia parasites are largely controversial. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Giardia parasites and the genetic profile of circulating assemblage(s) in patients attended the outpatient clinic at Kafrelsheikh University hospital, Kafr El Sheikh Province, Egypt. A total of 318 patients, of different age and sex, referred to the clinic were subjected to fecal examination. Microscopic results revealed that 181/318 (56.9%) were positive for Giardia parasites. Multilocus genotyping by PCR/sequencing of beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes of representative number of positive samples (65) revealed that assemblages A, B and mixed infections (A + B) occurred in 26/65 (40.0%), 32/65 (49.2%) and 10.8% (7/65) of the analyzed isolates, respectively. MLGs analysis indicated that assemblage A sequences clustered in two novel types of AII sub-assemblage. In assemblage B sequences, BIII was the predominant (22/23, 95.7%) sub-assemblage compared to BIV (1/23, 4.3%). Collectively, assemblage B MLGs displayed greater levels of genetic diversity compared to assemblage A. Our data indicate that assemblages A and B of G. duodenalis circulate in humans at Kafr El Sheikh Province, Egypt, and that high genetic diversity exists at the assemblage and/or sub-assemblage levels.