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Reverse translating SULT1A1, a potential biomarker in roentgenographically tested rat model of rapid HAPE induction

Paul, Subhojit, Gangwar, Anamika, Patir, Himadri, Bhargava, Kalpana, Ahmad, Yasmin
Life sciences 2019 v.229 pp. 132-138
altitude, animal models, biomarkers, edema, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, inflammation, interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta, lungs, males, mortality, pathophysiology, patients, proteins, radiography, rats, staining, transferases, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
HAPE remains the most common lethal high-altitude disease. Although its pathophysiology and other associated causal factors have been partially uncovered along with some potential biomarker proteins, it has not been completely elucidated. A major hindrance to improving the understanding of HAPE pathophysiology and associated molecular events has been the absence of a quick, reliable and definitive animal model of HAPE. This study is aimed at development of a rapid and reliable SD rat model of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) that can be roentgenographically confirmed and be used to study protein markers of HAPE.In this study, we detail the process of rapidly inducing HAPE in male SD rats within 18 h of simulated high-altitude exposure without causing high rates of mortality. Thereafter, we confirmed HAPE using roentgenography. We assessed Sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1), IL-1 beta, TNF- alpha and IFN-gamma using ELISA. Finally, H&E staining of lung tissues was also performed.A roentgenographically confirmed HAPE model was demonstrated. SULT 1A1 levels are found to be highest in rats suffering HAPE, as previously confirmed in human patients. Inflammation was also assessed based on levels of inflammatory proteins like IL-1b, TNF-a, and IFN-g in addition to H&E staining of lung tissues. Inflammation and HAPE were observed to be synergistic events and not cause and effect of each other.This rat model of HAPE will help researchers and clinicians in evaluating performance of therapies, potential biomarker and also further elucidate underlying molecular processes causing HAPE.