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Studies on diversity of Vibrio sp. and the prevalence of hapA, tcpI, st, rtxA&C, acfB, hlyA, ctxA, ompU and toxR genes in environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae from Port Blair bays of South Andaman, India

Meena, Balakrishnan, Anburajan, Lawrance, Sathish, Thadikamala, Das, Apurba Kumar, Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan, Kirubagaran, Ramalingam, Dharani, Gopal
Marine pollution bulletin 2019
Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, antibiotic resistance, biomarkers, coastal water, estuaries, genes, human health, polymerase chain reaction, population density, principal component analysis, species diversity, tetracycline, virulence, water pollution, India
Vibrio species are widely distributed in the estuarine and coastal waters that possess the greatest threat to human health worldwide. In this study it is aimed to isolate and observe the abundance of Vibrio sp. and prevalence of biomarker genes and antibiotic resistance profile of V. cholerae isolated from the Port Blair bays of South Andaman. A total of 56 water samples were collected from the seven sampling stations of Port Blair bays in which maximum number of Vibrio sp. population density (1.78 × 104) was recorded in Phoenix Bay. Among the 786 isolates 57.38% of the isolates were confirmed as Vibrio sp., Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. PCR results revealed that the prevalence of biomarker genes was recorded maximum in the isolates from Phoenix Bay and Junglighat Bay samples. Upon further analysis, it was observed that the prevalence of hlyA gene (215 bp), was found to be the most widespread biomarker determinant in 84.17% of isolates. Major virulence determinants; ctxA, ompU and toxR genes were not detected in V. cholerae isolates from Port Blair bays. Maximum antibiotic resistance pattern was observed in Phoenix Bay isolates and maximum number of V. cholerae isolates was resistance to tetracycline (60.76%). Cluster and Principal Component Analysis were employed to understand the diversity and distribution of Vibrio isolates and its biomarker genes. Upon PCA analysis seasonal influence was not much perceived in Vibrio species diversity in Port Blair bays and the lack of significant difference in the detection of species diversity in this study is due to resemblance in geographical conditions and sources of pollution.