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Metabolic adaptation to feed restriction on the green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) fingerlings

Lin, Ching-Yu, Huang, Lu-Hsueh, Deng, Dong-Fang, Lee, Sheng-Han, Liang, Hao-Jan, Hung, Silas S.O.
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.684 pp. 78-88
Acipenser medirostris, bioactive properties, body weight, cholesterol, creatine, energy metabolism, extinction, fatty acids, fingerlings, glycerol, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, ketone bodies, kidneys, liver, multivariate analysis, muscle tissues, muscles, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, osmolality, phosphates, phospholipids, population dynamics, principal component analysis, restricted feeding, sturgeon, taurine, wildlife
Food restriction may cause severe biological effects on wildlife and lead to population decline and extinction. The objective of the current study was to examine the metabolic effects on green sturgeon in response to feed restriction. Green sturgeon fingerlings were fed for two weeks at 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% of the optimum feeding rate (OFR), which corresponded to 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00% body weight per day. We characterized the changes in hydrophilic and hydrophobic metabolites from extracts of muscle, liver, and kidney using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy followed by multivariate statistical analysis. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) score plots from the analyses of hydrophilic metabolites showed that they exhibited a greater response to feed restriction than hydrophobic metabolites. In general, the hydrophilic metabolites in tissues from fish fed ≦25% of the OFR were separated from those fed 100% of the OFR in the PCA score plots. Among the three types of tissues examined, the overall metabolite changes showed a greater response to feed restriction in kidney tissue than in liver or muscle tissues. Numerous glucogenic amino acids in muscle and most amino acids in the kidney were decreased under feed restriction conditions. A significant decrease in ketone bodies (3-hydroxyisobutyrate) was observed in the muscle. Most fatty acids except for glycerol, phospholipid and cholesterol in the liver and kidney tissues were decreased under feed restriction conditions. Creatine phosphate, taurine and glycine were also significantly increased in tissues under feed restriction conditions. In conclusion, this study suggests that the manipulation of feed restriction under the current conditions perturbed metabolites related to energy metabolism, osmolality regulation, and antioxidation capacity in the sturgeon.