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Bactericidal effects of metallosurfactants based cobalt oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus
- Dogra, Varsha, Kaur, Gurpreet, Jindal, Shiwani, Kumar, Rajeev, Kumar, Sandeep, Singhal, Nitin Kumar
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.681 pp. 350-364
- Staphylococcus aureus, X-ray diffraction, antibacterial properties, antioxidants, cell viability, cell walls, circular dichroism spectroscopy, cobalt, cobalt oxide, cytotoxicity, emulsions, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, gel electrophoresis, genotoxicity, human cell lines, humans, liver neoplasms, multiple drug resistance, mutagens, nanoparticles, neoplasm cells, quaternary ammonium compounds, reducing agents, scanning electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopy, shrinkage, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, zeta potential
- This work deals with the fabrication of metallosurfactants derived cobalt oxide and hydroxide nanosuspensions (Ns) by microemulsion method and their antimicrobial, cytotoxic, genotoxic, antioxidant and cytostatic activity have been investigated. The methodology used is environmentally compliant as no external reducing agent was used. Three metallosurfactants i.e. CoCTAC (Bishexadecyltrimethylammonium cobalt tetrachloride), CoDDA (Bisdodecylamine cobalt dichloride) and CoHEXA (bishexadecylamine cobalt dichloride) were used. Co-metallosurfactants were synthesized, characterized and were utilized for the preparation of mixed microemulsion to yield nanosuspensions. Nanoparticles prepared were characterized using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectroscopy and Zeta potential. The nanoparticles were found to be spherical, with size range 1–5 nm, for all the three precursors. Further, their cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). To evaluate these activities, techniques such as gram staining method, agar well diffusion, and colony forming unit count (CFU) were utilized. From all these experiments it was confirmed that CoCTAC Ns has maximum antimicrobial activity against multiple medicine resistant S. aureus. Circular dichroism and gel electrophoresis also validated the vigorous genotoxic effect of CoCTAC Ns. The antimicrobial activity trend investigated from CFU experiment was CoCTAC Ns (2 × 105 CFU/mL) > CoDDA Ns (17 × 105 CFU/mL) > CoHEXA Ns (46.5 × 105 CFU/mL). FESEM authenticated the effect of Co Ns on the morphology of S. aureus. Cell shrinkage, formation of holes, change of morphology, and cell wall rupturing was observed for all three cases but most significant antibacterial activity was noted for the case of CoCTAC Ns. In addition, antiproliferative activity was also examined against HepG2 cells (human liver cancer cell line) and HEK293 cells (human embryonic kidney cell line). After 70% confluency of cells, cobalt oxide/hydroxide Ns were added by diluting the nanosuspension in 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.8% V/V ratio to check the cell viability.