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ATG8-Binding UIM Proteins Define a New Class of Autophagy Adaptors and Receptors

Marshall, Richard S., Hua, Zhihua, Mali, Sujina, McLoughlin, Fionn, Vierstra, Richard D.
Cell 2019 v.177 no.3 pp. 766-781.e24
autophagy, human diseases, humans, hydrophobicity, receptors, ubiquitin, yeasts
During autophagy, vesicle dynamics and cargo recruitment are driven by numerous adaptors and receptors that become tethered to the phagophore through interactions with lipidated ATG8/LC3 decorating the expanding membrane. Most currently described ATG8-binding proteins exploit a well-defined ATG8-interacting motif (AIM, or LC3-interacting region [LIR]) that contacts a hydrophobic patch on ATG8 known as the LIR/AIM docking site (LDS). Here we describe a new class of ATG8 interactors that exploit ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM)-like sequences for high-affinity binding to an alternative ATG8 interaction site. Assays with candidate UIM-containing proteins together with unbiased screens identified a large collection of UIM-based ATG8 interactors in plants, yeast, and humans. Analysis of a subsetĀ also harboring ubiquitin regulatory X (UBX) domains revealed a role for UIM-directed autophagy in clearing non-functional CDC48/p97 complexes, including some impaired in human disease. With this new class of adaptors and receptors, we greatly extend the reach of selective autophagy and identify new factors regulating autophagic vesicle dynamics.