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Chitosan oligosaccharide-mediated attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation in IPEC-J2 cells is related to the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway

Shi, Lin, Fang, Biao, Yong, Yanhong, Li, Xuewen, Gong, Dongliang, Li, Junyu, Yu, Tianyue, Gooneratne, Ravi, Gao, Zhenhua, Li, Sidong, Ju, Xianghong
Carbohydrate polymers 2019 v.219 pp. 269-279
Toll-like receptor 4, chitosan, colitis, dextran sulfate, epithelial cells, inflammation, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, lipopolysaccharides, mice, oligosaccharides, signal transduction, transcription factor NF-kappa B
The protective mechanism of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) against lipopolysaccharides (LPS) -induced inflammatory responses in IPEC-J2 and in mice with DSS dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) -induced colitis is reported. Upon exposure to LPS, the proliferation rate of IPEC-J2 cells markedly decreased, and epithelial cell integrity was compromised. However, COS pretreatment significantly reduced these changes. Low-concentration (200 μg/mL) COS up-regulated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear p65 expression, but inhibited LPS-induced expression of nuclear p65, IL-6, and IL-8. Addition of the TLR4 inhibitor reduced nuclear p65, IL-6, and IL-8 expression in IPEC-J2 cells exposed to COS or LPS alone, and a slight up-regulation in nuclear p65 was observed in COS and LPS co-treated cells. Medium-dose COS (600 mg/kg/d) protected against DSS-induced colitis, in which TLR4 and nuclear p65 expression levels were decreased. We postulate that the prevention of both LPS- and DSS -induced inflammatory responses in IPEC-J2 cells and mice by COS are related to the inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.