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Molecular phylodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena determined by mitochondrial Cox1 and SSU-rDNA markers in Iranian dogs: Indicating the first record of pig strain (G7) in definitive host in the Middle East

Mirbadie, Seyed Reza, Najafi Nasab, Abbas, Mohaghegh, Mohammad Ali, Norouzi, Pirasteh, Mirzaii, Mehdi, Spotin, Adel
Comparative immunology, microbiology, and infectious diseases 2019 v.65 pp. 88-95
Ancylostoma, Blastocystis, Capillaria, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Eimeria, Giardia, Taenia hydatigena, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, at-risk population, cytochrome-c oxidase, definitive hosts, deworming, dog diseases, dogs, drug therapy, eggs, feces, genetic markers, genetic variation, haplotypes, intestines, mitochondria, parasites, parasitoses, phylogeny, ribosomal DNA, risk factors, sequence analysis, swine, taxonomy, Iran, Middle East
Unawareness of canine parasitic diseases among at-risk hosts and an uncontrolled program of stray dog population have caused that zoonotic parasites received great attention in endemic regions of the Middle East. A total of 552 faecal samples were collected between December 2016 to January 2018 from stray (n = 408) and domestic (n = 144) dogs of Iran. All specimens were coproscopically observed following concentration and flotation techniques. Subsequently, the DNAs of taeniid eggs were extracted, amplified, and sequenced by targeting of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and small-subunit ribosomal DNA markers. The overall prevalence of canine intestinal parasites found 53.6%. The following parasites and their total frequencies were identified: taeniid (10.5%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.7%), Trichuris vulpis (1.2%), Capillaria spp. (2.3%), Blastocystis spp. (5.2%), Ancylostoma spp. (2%), Eimeria spp. (13.2%), Dipylidium caninum (2.3%), Toxocara canis (3.8%), Giardia spp. (8.5%), and Toxascaris leonina (3.6%). Stray dogs were characterized more likely to be poliparasitized and indicated a higher prevalence of taeniid (10.9%), T. canis (4.4%) Giardia spp. (10.1%) than domestic dogs (P > 0.05). Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of Cox1 and SSU-rDNA indicated a low genetic diversity (Haplotype diversity; 0 to 0.495) in E. granulosus sensu lato G1, G3, G7 genotypes, and Taenia hydatigena. The pairwise sequence distances between G7 isolates showed an intra-diversity of 0.7%–1.5% and identity of 98.5%–100%. The first occurrence of pig strain (G7) from Iranian dogs might have substantial implications in the drug treatment of infected dogs due to the shorter maturation time of G7 compared with G1 genotype. Thus, the preventive strategies should be noticed to determine the risk factors, the importance of applying the hygienic practices, and well adjusting deworming programs for the Iranian dogs and at-risk individuals.