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Assessment of microbial communities on freshly killed wild boar meat by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing

Peruzy, M.F., Murru, N., Yu, Z., Kerkhof, P.-J., Neola, B., Joossens, M., Proroga, Y.T.R., Houf, K.
International journal of food microbiology 2019 v.301 pp. 51-60
Salmonella, Sus scrofa, bacterial contamination, desorption, food pathogens, food safety, mammals, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry, microbial communities, microbiological quality, pork, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, ribosomal RNA, trade, wild boars
Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are the most widely distributed large mammals and recent increase in consumption of wild boar meat urges the need of microbiological quality criteria. The aim of the study was to characterize the initial bacterial contamination on freshly-killed wild boar meat using a culture-dependent approach with ISO-methods combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Moreover, the presence of foodborne pathogens was examined using Real-Time-PCR and confirmed by classical isolation. Analysing 22 unrelated wild boar meat samples showed a higher bacterial contamination level compared to pork, with Salmonella present in almost one third of the samples. A great variability of the microbial contamination between the samples was recorded, as well as complementary results between culturing and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing as frequently isolated genera were not always detected, and vice versa. Furthermore, the foodborne pathogen Salmonella was never detected with 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, demonstrating the necessity for a cautious approach in the implementation of new analysis techniques in food safety. The present work determines that attention should be paid to the trade of non-inspected meat directly to retail or consumers.