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Visceral leishmaniasis: An overview of vaccine adjuvants and their applications

Ratnapriya, Sneha, Keerti,, Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A., Dube, Anuradha
Vaccine 2019 v.37 no.27 pp. 3505-3519
adaptive immunity, clinical trials, dogs, immune response, vaccine adjuvants, vaccine development, vaccines, visceral leishmaniasis
Although there has been an extensive research on vaccine development over the last decade and some vaccines have been commercialized for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), but as yet no effective vaccine is available for anthroponotic VL which may partly be due to the absence of an appropriate adjuvant system. Vaccines alone yield poor immunity hence requiring an adjuvant which can boost the immunosuppressed state of VL infected individuals by eliciting adaptive immune responses to achieve required immunological enhancement. Recent studies have documented the continuous efforts that are being made in the field of adjuvants research in an attempt to render vaccines more effective. This review article focuses on adjuvants, particularly particulate and non-particulate ones, which have been assessed with VL vaccine candidates in several preclinical and clinical trials outlining the induction of immune responses obtained from these studies. Moreover, we have emphasized the applicability of multiple adjuvants combination for an improvement in the potential of a VL vaccine.