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Occurrence of neonicotinoids and fipronil in estuaries and their potential risks to aquatic invertebrates

Hano, Takeshi, Ito, Katsutoshi, Ohkubo, Nobuyuki, Sakaji, Hideo, Watanabe, Akio, Takashima, Kei, Sato, Taku, Sugaya, Takuma, Matsuki, Kosuke, Onduka, Toshimitsu, Ito, Mana, Somiya, Rei, Mochida, Kazuhiko
Environmental pollution 2019 v.252 pp. 205-215
Crangon, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Neomysis, adverse effects, brackish water, estuaries, fipronil, freshwater, imidacloprid, marine crustaceans, risk, salinity, sand, shrimp, toxicity, Sea of Japan
This study aimed to evaluate and qualify field-based potential risks of seven neonicotinoid and phenylpyrazole (fipronil) insecticides on aquatic invertebrates, including estuary-resident marine crustaceans. One hundred and ninety-three estuarine water samples, with salinity ranging from 0.5 to 32.7, were collected from four estuarine sites in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan, in 2015–2018 and the insecticide levels were measured. Five neonicotinoid and fipronil insecticides were successfully identified, and their occurrence varied temporally. Marine crustaceans were simultaneously harvested every month from one of the estuarine water sampling sites in 2015–2017. Three predominant crustacean species, kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus), sand shrimp (Crangon uritai), and mysid (Neomysis awatschensis), were captured and their seasonal presence was species independent. A 96-h laboratory toxicity study with the insecticides using kuruma prawn, sand shrimp, and a surrogate mysid species (Americamysis bahia) indicated that fipronil exerted the highest toxicity to the three crustaceans. Using both toxicity data and insecticide occurrence in estuarine water (salinity ≥10, n = 169), the potential risks on the three marine crustaceans were quantified by calculating the proportion of mixture toxicity effects (Pₘᵢₓ). The Pₘᵢₓ of seven neonicotinoids on the crustaceans was less than 0.8%, which is likely to be too low to indicate adverse effects caused by the insecticides. However, short temporal detection of fipronil (exclusively in June and July) significantly affected the Pₘᵢₓ, which presented the maximal Pₘᵢₓ values of 21%, 3.4%, and 72% for kuruma prawn, sand shrimp, and mysid, respectively, indicating a significant effect on the organisms. As for estuarine water (salinity <10), some water samples contained imidacloprid and fipronil exceeding the freshwater benchmarks for aquatic invertebrates. The present study provides novel insights into the seasonally varying risks of insecticides to estuarine crustaceans and highlights the importance of considering whether ecological risk periods coincide with crustacean presence.