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An overview of chlorophenols as contaminants and their removal from wastewater by adsorption: A review
- Garba, Zaharaddeen N., Zhou, Weiming, Lawan, Ibrahim, Xiao, Wei, Zhang, Mingxi, Wang, Liwei, Chen, Lihui, Yuan, Zhanhui
- Journal of environmental management 2019 v.241 pp. 59-75
- activated carbon, adsorbents, adsorption, agroindustrial byproducts, chlorophenols, hydrogen bonding, industry, pH, temperature, toxicity, wastewater, wastewater treatment
- In this review article, a significant number of published articles (over three decades) were consulted in order to provide comprehensive literature information about chlorophenols, their sources into the environment, classification, and toxicity, various wastewater treatment methods for their removal as well as the characteristics of their adsorption by various adsorbents. Organizing the scattered available information on a wide range of potentially effective adsorbents in the removal of chlorophenols is the principal objective of this article. Various adsorbents such as natural materials, waste materials from industries, agricultural by-products and biomass-based activated carbon in the removal of various chlorophenols have been compiled and discussed here. Crucial factors like temperature, solution pH, contact time and initial solution concentration are also reported and discussed here. The π-π dispersion interaction mechanism, hydrogen bonding formation mechanism, and the electron donor-acceptor complex mechanism were proposed for the chlorophenols adsorption onto various adsorbents with the help of current literature. Conclusions have been drawn proposing a few suggestions for future research on mitigating the effect of chlorophenols in the environment.