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Implications of biogas and electric cooking technologies in residential sector in Nepal – A long term perspective using AIM/Enduse model

Pradhan, Bijay B., Limmeechokchai, Bundit, Shrestha, Ram M.
Renewable energy 2019 v.143 pp. 377-389
air pollutants, air pollution, biogas, biomass, cooking, electricity, electricity generation, emissions, fuelwood, gases, greenhouse gases, models, water power, Nepal
This paper aims to analyze the effects of biogas and electricity based cooking on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) as well as local air pollutant emissions during 2010–2050 in the case of Nepal, which is highly dependent on traditional biomass (mainly fuelwood) for cooking. The country is rich in hydropower resources. A long-term bottom-up energy system model has been developed using Asia-Pacific Integrated Model/Enduse (AIM/Enduse) model for the analysis. The study developed a business as usual (BAU) scenario and three alternative cooking scenarios. Three alternative scenarios, named as “CL”, “CM” and “CH” scenarios; consider low, medium and high level of penetrations of electric- and biogas-based cooking options, respectively. The changes in energy use and electricity generation in the BAU and alternative scenarios have been compared. Fuelwood consumption in the residential sector in 2050 when compared to the BAU would decrease by 12.5% in CL, 19.0% in CM and 24.2% in CH scenarios; and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption would decrease by 12.8% in CL, 16.3% in CM and 19.6% in CH scenarios. The electricity generation requirement in 2050 would increase by 9.4% in CL, 13.9% in CM and 17.0% in CH scenarios. Finally, the assessment of GHG and local pollutant emissions shows the decrease in all gases in CL, CM and CH scenarios when compared to the BAU.