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Current and future trends in clostridioides (clostridium) difficile infection management
- Khanna, Sahil, Gerding, Dale N.
- Anaerobe 2019 v.58 pp. 95-102
- Clostridium difficile, antibiotics, digestive system, dysbiosis, microbiome, monoclonal antibodies, toxins, vaccines
- Current and future management of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) including antibiotic treatment is increasingly focused on preventive strategies, either prevention of recurrent CDI (rCDI) or primary prevention of CDI. In addition to newer narrow spectrum antibiotics and pulse dosing of antibiotic treatment, multiple widely differing approaches to prevention of CDI and rCDI are under clinical development or recently approved for clinical use. They include immunologics, both passive monoclonal antibodies and active vaccines targeted at C. difficile toxins, approaches to reduce antibiotic dysbiosis in the gut, microbiome restoration using fecal microbiome transplants (FMT) or biotherapeutic bacterial derivatives, and substitution of non-toxigenic C. difficile (NTCD) for toxigenic C. difficile. Newer antibiotics, monoclonal antibodies, and FMT are targeted at reducing rCDI whereas vaccines and reduction of antibiotic dysbiosis in the gut are targeted at prevention of primary CDI. Biotherapeutics may be used for prevention of either primary CDI or rCDI. Approaches such as monoclonal antibodies, FMT, and biotherapeutics provide rapid but transient preventive benefits, whereas vaccines require weeks to months to be effective, but will presumably provide long term prevention. More rapid but transient prevention strategies such as FMT and biotherapeutics could be used in combination with vaccines to provide both rapid and durable CDI prevention.