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Recent progress on porcine circovirus type 3

Ouyang, Ting, Niu, Guyu, Liu, Xiaohua, Zhang, Xinwei, Zhang, Ying, Ren, Linzhu
Infection, genetics, and evolution 2019 v.73 pp. 227-233
Porcine circovirus, Porcine circovirus-3, dermatitis, epidemiology, humans, inflammation, kidney diseases, pathogenesis, pathogens, pork industry, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), swine, ticks, tissues, viruses, wild boars, United States
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is a newly identified virus that belongs to the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae. Since the first identification of PCV3 in domestic swine in 2016 in the USA, exciting progress on PCV3 has emphasized the importance of the virus. The aim of this review is to present recent advances in the molecular characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of PCV3. The virus spreads widely throughout almost all tissues of pig and wild boar in various countries, with a gradual increase of the infection. PCV3 is a pathogen associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS)-like clinical signs, reproductive failure, and cardiac and multiorgan inflammation. Furthermore, PCV3 has been detected in other animals and ticks, suggesting that PCV3 possesses cross-species transmission abilities and has an unexpectedly broad distribution and circulation in the wild, where these animals may serve as potential reservoirs for PCV3 and pose a threat to the swine industry or even to humans. Moreover, several detection methods, which can specifically detect PCV3 or differentiate PCV3 from the other viruses, are also reviewed. The present review provides updated knowledge on PCV3-related research. Identification of the prevailing strain of PCV3 and its reservoirs is essential for researchers to understand PCV3 infections and PCV3-related diseases.