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Impact of fuel dispensing stations in the vicinity residential homes on the indoor and outdoor air quality

Alenezi, R. A., Aldaihan, N.
International journal of environmental science and technology 2019 v.16 no.6 pp. 2783-2796
BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), air, air quality, benzene, carcinogenicity, fuels, health effects assessments, meteorological data, models, mutagens, nitrogen oxides, pollutants, pollution, residential housing, risk, toluene, urban population, urbanization, volatile organic compounds, wind direction, xylene
Worldwide, urbanization has expanded rapidly over the past two centuries that resulted in high pollution levels. Numerous fuel dispensing stations are built to serve the ever-increasing demand of consumers and are busy at all times, emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and affecting the neighbouring community. VOCs comprising BTEXs (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes) have mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics leading to high health risk. In this research study, the precise concentrations of these pollutants are measured in homes that neighbour fuel dispensing stations, and the associated risk of developing the described health effects are assessed. Moreover, air dispersion modelling is used to calculate meteorological data and wind rose, which indicates a north-westerly predominant wind and how pollutants move through the atmosphere. The risk of developing sensory irritation and other related health problems due to the presence of these compounds is evaluated to assess the existence of sick building syndrome in selected Kuwaiti homes near fuel dispensing stations. As a consequence of this research, the most appropriate mitigation methods are proposed to be implemented for a healthy and comfortable living for local inhabitants of the state in high-risk areas of the urban community. The distribution of BTEX compounds emitted from the fuel dispensing station is associated with the total emission and meteorological conditions. The dispersion of both NOₓ and total BTEX is noticeably high at downwind locations.