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An Unprecedented Biaxial Trilayered Hybrid Perovskite Ferroelectric with Directionally Tunable Photovoltaic Effects

Wang, Sasa, Liu, Xitao, Li, Lina, Ji, Chengmin, Sun, Zhihua, Wu, Zhenyue, Hong, Maochun, Luo, Junhua
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2019 v.141 no.19 pp. 7693-7697
lead, oxides, temperature
Multiaxial molecular ferroelectrics, in which multiple-directional switching of spontaneous polarization creates diverse properties, have shown many intriguing advantages, making them indispensable complements to conventional inorganic oxides. Despite recent blooming advances, multiaxial molecular ferroelectric with bulk photovoltaic effects still remains a huge blank. Herein, we report a biaxial lead halide ferroelectric, EA₄Pb₃Br₁₀ (1, EA = ethylammonium), which adopts the unique trilayered perovskite motif with a high Curie temperature of ∼384 K. Particularly, for 1, the distinct symmetry breaking with 4/mmmFmm2 species leads to the emergence of four equivalent polarization directions in the ferroelectric phase. Based on its biaxial nature, the bulk photovoltaic effect of 1 can be facilely tuned between such multiple directions through electric poling. As far as we know, this is the first report on biaxial hybrid perovskite ferroelectric showing directionally tunable photovoltaic activity. This work provides an avenue to control the bulk physical properties of multiaxial molecular ferroelectrics, and highlights their potential for further applications in the field of smart devices.