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Overwintering Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pup growth and behavior prior to weaning
- Rehberg, M.J., Rea, L.D., Eischens, C.A.
- Canadian journal of zoology 2018 v.96 no.2 pp. 97-106
- Eumetopias jubatus, adults, age structure, females, income breeding, isotopes, lipids, nitrogen, overwintering, pups, spring, weaning, winter, Alaska
- We measured individual growth, looked for evidence of weaning, and examined the interaction of these changes with diving behavior in young-of-year Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)) pups in Alaska, USA, during their first winter. Steller sea lions employ an income breeding strategy, in which females provision their young over an individually variable period of months to years. Thus, we set out to identify whether these young sea lions showed evidence of weaning during the challenging winter months, describe the nature of their growth during this time, and examine their behaviors in light of these changes. Between 2005 and 2008, we captured 71 pups during early winter and recaptured 33 of these pups in early spring. Mark–resight and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in vibrissae indicated most pups remained nutritionally dependent on adult females throughout the winter. All pups increased both mass and lipid mass, with half of growth contributed by lipid mass. Changes in behavior were not correlated with growth excepting a weak but significant effect on rate of vertical travel. This study demonstrated that capture–recapture of Steller sea lion pups is possible, provided seasonal timing, locations, and age classes are carefully considered for their likelihood of capture success.