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Genetic classification of Aegilops columnaris Zhuk. (2n=4x=28, UᶜUᶜXᶜXᶜ) chromosomes based on FISH analysis and substitution patterns in common wheat × Ae. columnaris introgressive lines

Badaeva, E.D., Ruban, A.S., Shishkina, A.A., Sibikeev, S.N., Druzhin, A.E., Surzhikov, S.A., Dragovich, A.Yu.
Genome 2018 v.61 no.2 pp. 131-143
Aegilops columnaris, Aegilops umbellulata, DNA, DNA probes, Triticum aestivum, chromosome banding, chromosomes, diploidy, disease resistance, drought tolerance, fish, fluorescence in situ hybridization, genotype, grasses, heat, hybrids, introgression, leaf rust, nucleotide sequences, pest resistance, resistance genes, tetraploidy, wheat
Aegilops columnaris is a tetraploid species originated from Ae. umbellulata (2n=2x=14, UU) and a yet unknown diploid grass species. Although Ae. columnaris possesses some agronomically valuable traits, such as heat and drought tolerance and resistance to pests, it has never been used in wheat breeding because of difficulties in producing hybrids and a lack of information on the relationships between Ae. columnaris and common wheat chromosomes. In this paper, we report the development of 57 wheat – Ae. columnaris introgressive lines covering 8 of the14 chromosomes of Aegilops. Based on substitution spectra of hybrids and the results of FISH analysis of the parental Ae. columnaris line with seven DNA probes, we have developed the genetic nomenclature of the Uᶜ and Xᶜ chromosomes. Genetic groups and genome affinities were established for 11 of 14 chromosomes; the classification of the remaining three chromosomes remains unsolved. Each Ae. columnaris chromosome was characterized on the basis of C-banding pattern and the distribution of seven DNA sequences. Introgression processes were shown to depend on the parental wheat genotype and the level of divergence of homoeologous chromosomes. We found that lines carrying chromosome 5Xᶜ are resistant to leaf rust; therefore, this chromosome could possess novel resistance genes that have never been utilized in wheat breeding.