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Cytotoxic Tolerance of Healthy and Cancerous Bone Cells to Anti-microbial Phenolic Compounds Depend on Culture Conditions

Karadas, Ozge, Mese, Gulistan, Ozcivici, Engin
Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 2019 v.188 no.2 pp. 514-526
Gram-positive bacteria, antibacterial properties, anticarcinogenic agents, antioxidants, bone marrow, cytotoxicity, mesenchymal stromal cells, osteosarcoma, polyphenols, rosemary, sage, stem cells, tissue engineering, viability
Carnosol and carnosic acid are polyphenolic compounds found in rosemary and sage with known anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial properties. Here, we addressed the potential use of carnosol and carnosic acid for in vitro bone tissue engineering applications, specifically depending on their cytotoxic effects on bone marrow stromal and stem cells, and osteosarcoma cells in monolayer and 3D cultures. Carnosol and carnosic acid displayed a bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria, especially on S. aureus. The viability results indicated that bone marrow stromal cells and bone marrow stem cells were more tolerant to the presence of carnosol compared to osteosarcoma cells. 3D culture conditions increased this tolerance further for healthy cells, while not affecting the cytotoxic potential of carnosol for osteosarcoma cells. Carnosic acid was found to be more cytotoxic for all cell types used in the study. Results suggest that phenolic compounds might have potential use as anti-microbial and anti-carcinogenic agents for bone tissue engineering with further optimization for controlled release.