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Analysis of Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxyl Fatty Acid in Selected Plant Food
- Liberati-Čizmek, Ana-Marija, Biluš, Mirna, Brkić, Antun Lovro, Barić, Irena Colić, Bakula, Miro, Hozić, Amela, Cindrić, Mario
- Plant foods for human nutrition 2019 v.74 no.2 pp. 235-240
- anti-inflammatory activity, apples, avocados, bananas, blueberries, carrots, cherry tomatoes, clementines, fatty acid esters, functional foods, garlic, glycemic effect, homeostasis, hydroxy fatty acids, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, inflammation, insulin resistance, kiwifruit, lemons, mangoes, mass spectrometry, metabolic syndrome, mortality, oats, obesity, onions, parsley, pineapples, radishes, risk factors, special diets, stearic acid, strawberries, whole grain foods
- Metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Preclinical studies on recently discovered classes of lipids – fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFA) have revealed their anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing potential. The FAHFA levels are significantly decreased in insulin-resistant individuals, their application exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and restoring the glucose-insulin homeostasis. The aim of our research was to analyze the overall FAHFA composition in a common diet, as only a partial FAHFA composition has been revealed so far (only the PAHSA subclass was analyzed in a few foods). A new approach to the FAHFAs analysis includes nano-LC and post-column modifier followed by negative ion mass spectrometry, in order to obtain maximum sensitivity. Analysis of different foods – oat (whole grain, coarse flakes and fine flakes), apple, clementine, lemon, strawberry, blueberry, mango, kiwi, avocado, pineapple, banana, onion, garlic, cherry tomato, carrot, parsley root, pepper and radish – exhibited wide inter-food variation in the FAHFA profiles. Sixteen analyzed FAHFAs (palmitic, oleic, palmitoleic and stearic hydroxy-esters) showed microgram to low nanogram levels (0.165 ng/g – 32 μg/g FW), with the highest abundancy in oat, clementine, garlic and pineapple. Stearic acid hydroxy stearic acid (SAHSA) was the most abundant FAHFA, especially in the food with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and beneficial metabolic effects. In contrary, the PAHSA - previously proven to have the strongest antihyperglycemic and insulin-sensitizing effects, was not present in some foods (radish, avocado, mango, lemon, cherry tomato, kiwi). Our study proves the importance of overall FAHFA analysis in food (especially in a functional food), because of their potential metabolic benefits and possible future incorporation in special diets.