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Sequential changes in urine production, glomerular filtration rate, and electrolyte excretion after mannitol administration

Segev, Gilad, Stafford, Cheryl, Kirby, John, Cowgill, Larry D.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine 2019 v.33 no.3 pp. 1362-1367
cross-over studies, dogs, electrolytes, excretion, glomerular filtration rate, glucose, kidneys, mannitol, morbidity, mortality, sodium, solutes, urea nitrogen, uremia, urine
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) leading to severe uremia is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic, widely used in the management of AKI, both as a bolus injection and as a constant rate infusion (CRI). OBJECTIVES: To determine the plasma concentration of mannitol after a bolus injection and CRI at the recommended dosages, and to assess the effect of mannitol on renal function variables including urine production, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and solute excretion. METHODS: Prospective cross‐over design study, using 6 healthy dogs. Each dog underwent 3 protocols with at least a 7‐day washout period between protocols. The first protocol included bolus injection of mannitol, the second protocol included bolus injection followed by CRI of mannitol and the third protocol (control) included injection of 5% dextrose in water (D5W). Urine production, GFR, and fractional excretion (FE) of solutes were measured for 10 hours. RESULTS: For all protocols, urine production significantly (P < .001) increased after bolus injection, but no significant difference in urine production or GFR was observed among the treatment groups. Mannitol injection increased the FE of sodium and urea nitrogen, but these effects were short‐lived. CONCLUSIONS: Mannitol has minimal effect on urine production and GFR but does increase FE of urea nitrogen and sodium, immediately after bolus injection. Constant rate infusion at a conventional dosage of 1 mg/kg/min cannot maintain these effects in dogs with normal renal function, because mannitol concentration decreases rapidly.