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Targeting nitrogen use efficiency for sustained production of cereal crops

Ranjan, Rumesh, Yadav, Rajbir
Journal of plant nutrition 2019 v.42 no.9 pp. 1086-1113
crop production, gene overexpression, genes, genetic engineering, genetic variation, genetically modified organisms, genotype, grain crops, leaves, nitrogen, nutrient use efficiency, photosynthesis, quantitative trait loci, ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase, stems, transporters
Increased application of inorganic nitrogen has been the key component responsible for growth in cereal production. Due to continuously increasing application of Nitrogen (N) and its lower use efficiency along with environmental and health implications of leftover N, improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) through management and genetic manipulation require immediate attention. The way N is uptaken through better root architecture and improved transporters and assimilated and remobilized into storage organ influences NUE. Partitioning of N between leaves and stems, photosynthetic efficiency, rubisco activity and senescence of leaf decide N utilization efficiency. Genetic manipulation to improve NUE requires information on the extent of exploitable genetic variability and their genetic control, however, limited information about these traits limits development of efficient genotypes. MAS for QTLs associated with key enzymes involved in N uptake and utilization or transgenic by overexpressing the enzymatic gene shows great promise in the future. Furthermore, the interaction of NUE and other plant traits should be evaluated.