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Higher Waist Circumference Is Related to Lower Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Participants: Metabolic Implications
- Chaves, Larissa Oliveira, Carraro, Júlia Cristina Cardoso, Vidigal, Fernanda de Carvalho, Bressan, Josefina
- Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2019 v.38 no.4 pp. 342-350
- adiponectin, calcium, cardiovascular diseases, cross-sectional studies, eating habits, fatty acid composition, food frequency questionnaires, food intake, glucose, health care workers, healthy diet, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, homeostasis, insulin resistance, interleukin-1beta, metabolic syndrome, models, niacin, oxidative stress, phosphorus, polyunsaturated fatty acids, pyridoxine, relative risk, riboflavin, saturated fatty acids, systolic blood pressure, uric acid, waist circumference
- Objective: We evaluated whether the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and cardiometabolic risk is related to usual diet and plasma fatty acid composition. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 226 health professionals from 20 to 59 years old. Anthropometric features, oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and plasma fatty acid profile were assessed. Dietary intake was evaluated with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, the quality of dietary habits by Healthy Eating Index, and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance and triglyceride-glucose index. Results: Higher WC was associated with lower concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.000) and adiponectin (p = 0.000) and higher uric acid levels (p = 0.011). Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels were negatively associated with weight (p = 0.046), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.035), fasting glucose (p = 0.000), triglyceride-glucose index (p = 0.023), and IL-1β (p = 0.037). Individuals with elevated WC consumed more calories (p = 0.002), niacin (p = 0.002), and pyridoxine (p = 0.017), but less calcium (p = 0.001), phosphorus (p = 0.016), and vitamin B2 (p = 0.011). In addition, individuals with higher WC denoted lower PUFA concentrations (p = 0.036). Conclusion: The results suggest that participants with higher WC have lower plasma PUFA concentrations and higher levels of saturated fatty acids. This could be related to metabolic and inflammatory changes that could trigger increased risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.