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To be or not to be: PP2A as a dual player in CNS functions, its role in neurodegeneration, and its interaction with brain insulin signaling

Javadpour, Pegah, Dargahi, Leila, Ahmadiani, Abolhassan, Ghasemi, Rasoul
Cellular and molecular life sciences 2019 v.76 no.12 pp. 2277-2297
brain, enzymes, insulin, neurodegenerative diseases, phosphorylation, signal transduction
Accumulating evidence has reached the consensus that the balance of phosphorylation state of signaling molecules is a pivotal point in the regulation of cell signaling. Therefore, characterizing elements (kinases–phosphatases) in the phosphorylation balance are at great importance. However, the role of phosphatase enzymes is less investigated than kinase enzymes. PP2A is a member of serine/threonine protein phosphatase that its imbalance has been reported in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we reviewed the superfamily of phosphatases and more specifically PP2A, its regulation, and physiological functions participate in CNS. Thereafter, we discussed the latest findings about PP2A dysregulation in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and possible interplay between this phosphatase and insulin signaling pathways. Finally, activating/inhibitory modulators for PP2A activity as well as experimental methods for PP2A study have been reviewed.