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Application of different single extraction procedures for assessing the bioavailability of heavy metal(loid)s in soils from overlapped areas of farmland and coal resources

Luo, Ping, Xiao, Xin, Han, Xiaoxuan, Ma, Yu, Sun, Xiaofei, Jiang, Jiachao, Wang, Hui
Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.15 pp. 14932-14942
EDTA (chelating agent), acetic acid, aerial parts, agricultural land, ammonium, ammonium acetate, arsenic, bioaccumulation factor, bioavailability, cadmium, chromium, citric acid, coal, copper, crops, foliar uptake, heavy metals, lead, risk, roots, soil, straw, tissues, wheat, zinc, China
Heavy metal(loid) extraction from soils in overlapped areas of farmland and coal resources (OAFCR) is crucial in understanding heavy metal bioavailability in soil and the subsequent risks to crops and consumers. However, limited attention has been paid to the extraction procedure of heavy metal(loid)s in OAFCR soils in the research. This study therefore explored different single and mixed extraction procedures, such as acetic acid (HOAc), citric acid, ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid + ammonium acetate (EDTA+NH₄OAc), and total digestion (HNO₃-HClO₄-HF) to determine the bioavailability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in OAFCR soil in Xuzhou, China. The results showed the metal(loid) extraction capacity from soil of the different procedures could be ranked as AB-DTPA > EDTA+NH₄OAc > HOAC > citric acid. The transfer ability of heavy metal(loid)s from soil to wheat tissues and from wheat roots to aerial parts was analyzed by calculating the bioconcentration factor and transfer factor, respectively. Transfer factors of all metal(loid)s were < 1 except Cr whose transfer factor from root to shell and straw were > 1. It is suspected that foliar uptake plays a dominant role in Cr uptake. Correlation analysis between the bioavailability of heavy metal(loid)s in soil and uptake in respective wheat tissues was performed to recommend the best extraction procedures for different studies. The results show that AB-DTPA extraction is recommended for Cu uptake to wheat roots, straws, shells and grains, Zn uptake to roots, and Cd uptake to roots and straws.